1 Dec 2019

FASS Research Excellence Award 2019

Was delighted to be recognised by the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Nottingham Malaysia for my research contributions for the year 2018. You might be wondering "Why 2018"? Well, it is like the impact factor for journals, we were judged based on our performance in 2018.

I didn't really expect to win but while going through the work I had done last year, I was actually quite surprised I had actually achieved a lot.

This included the completion of a Government-funded project; successful completion of 2 consultancy projects; delivery of 2 guest lectures in 2 public Universities in Malaysia; successful supervision of 8 Masters students; publication of 7 journal papers, an external examiner for 2 PhD theses, reviewed 9 journals and conference proceedings and received an Outstanding contribution in Reviewing award from the journal, Technological forcasting and social change.

1 Oct 2019

My recent publications 2019

Here is the list of my recent publications this year. Let me know if you want soft copies of the paper. I am very happy and thankful that I have already exceeded my KPI requirements for the next 5 years. Whatever publications I have after this is just the icing on the cake.

Ghazali, E.; Mutum, D. and Woon, M. Y. (2019). Multiple Sequential Mediation in an Extended Uses and Gratifications Model of Augmented Reality Game Pokémon Go, Internet Research. 29(3), 504-528.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mechanism by which uses and gratification (U&G) constructs predict continuance intention to play (ContInt) the augmented reality game Pokémon Go (PG), through multiple serial mediation technique, with enjoyment and flow as mediators. The model also integrates other motivational factors specific to PG, namely, network externality and nostalgia and investigates the process by which they influence ContInt through players’ inherent need-to-collect animated monsters and online community involvement, respectively.
The model was tested using 362 validated responses from an online survey of PG players in Malaysia. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was used to analyse the data. The predictive relevance of the model was tested via partial least squares-Predict.
ContInt is influenced through various mechanisms. Enjoyment is the most important mediator, mediating three U&G predictor constructs (achievement, escapism, challenge and social interaction) and the outcome ContInt. Flow did not have any influence on ContInt unless coupled with enjoyment as a serial mediator. Network externality and nostalgia were found to only influence ContInt through mediators, online community involvement and need-to-collect Pokémon Monsters, respectively. Overall, the results show evidence of four indirect-only mediation paths and one complementary partial mediation path.
Provides support for an integrated model incorporating psychological, social and gaming motivational factors. While most other studies focus on direct relationships, we focus on indirect relationships through multiple sequential mediation analysis, following the recent modern mediation analysis guidelines. Contrary to previous findings, flow was not an important factor in predicting ContInt for gaming and nostalgia does not link directly to ContInt.

Al-hajla, A.H., Nguyen, B., Melewar, T.C., Jayawardhena, C., Mutum, D.  and Ghazali, E. (2019). Understanding the adoption of new religion-compliant products (NRCP) in Islamic markets. Journal of Global Marketing 32(4), 288-302. (AJG 1/ ABDC B/ SCOPUS)
This study examines the relationships between religious beliefs, brand personality, and new religion-compliant product adoption (NRCPA) in Islamic markets. Findings confirm that religious consumers tend to behave in accordance with a society or group that follows the same beliefs, and that these consumers’ behavior and lifestyle are influenced by similar religious groups and social relationships. In addition, the more religious the consumer, the more likely they will adopt or favour/disfavour a new product in accordance with his/her religious beliefs. Finally, the three constructs–relative advantages, compatibility and complexity–are found to partially mediate the influential relationship between religious beliefs and new religion-compliant product adoption. International firms that target Muslim markets, with an aim to profit and fit in these markets, must take into account the Islamic values, standards and guidelines.

Ghazali, E.M., Nguyen, B., Mutum, D.S. and Yap, S.-F. (2019). Pro-Environmental Behaviours and Value-Belief-Norm Theory: Assessing Unobserved Heterogeneity of Two Ethnic Groups. Sustainability 2019, 11, 3237.  (SCOPUS /ISI).
Previous environmental sustainability studies have examined only limited type of pro-environmental behaviour (PEB; e.g., recycling), but have not explored relationships among various types or dimensions of PEBs. This paper explores six types of PEBs (i.e., activist, avoider, green consumer, green passenger, recycler and utility saver) and investigates their antecedents and interrelationships between two ethnic groups—Malays and Chinese in Malaysia. Survey data from 581 respondents, comprising 307 Malays and 274 Chinese, were used to assess the research model. To conduct multi-group analysis, the study used partial least squares structural equation modelling in SmartPLS 3. The study extends the Value-Belief-Norm (VBN) theory by using social norms to predict PEBs. The results suggest that social norms predict each type of PEB, in contrast to other constructs in VBN theory, except for utility-saving behaviours. The findings also reveal some similarities as well as differences between Malays and Chinese, indicating that the two ethnic groups are not homogeneous. The study is the first to simultaneously study six types of PEB and to examine the differences between Malays and Chinese on PEB constructs and offers a valuable contribution to the literature by extending VBN theory to social norms and PEB.

Ghazali, E.M.; Ngiam, E. Y-L. and Mutum, D.S. (Accepted for publication). Elucidating the drivers of residential mobility and housing choice behaviour in a suburban township via push–pull–mooring framework, Journal of Housing and the Built Environment. DOI: 10.1007/s10901-019-09705-8
This study applies the “push-pull-mooring” model of migration to explain home purchase intention in a suburban township. “Push” effects include dissatisfaction and high housing costs in one’s current neighbourhood (“the origin”). “Pull” effects were consumers’ per-ceived value of the suburban township (“the destination”), which encompassed price, func-tional, emotional, social, symbolic, and Feng Shui aspects. Relocation costs and alternative township’s attractiveness were hypothesized as “mooring” effects that negatively impact purchase intention as well as moderate the push and pull effects. 179 valid responses from prospective home buyers were analysed using partial least squares structural equation mod-elling (PLS-SEM). Pull effects were found to exert a positive influence while mooring and push effects exert a negative influence on purchase intention. Moderation effects of the mooring factors were found to be not significant in this context. This study offers sev-eral interesting implications for researchers and marketing practitioners in the real estate industry

Mohd-Any, A. A.; Mutum, D.; Ghazali, E. M and Mohamed-Zulkifli, L. (2019). To fly or not to fly? An empirical study of trust, post-recovery satisfaction and loyalty of Malaysia Airlines passengers, Journal of Service Theory and Practice. DOI: 10.1108/JSTP-10-2018-0223
This research investigates the importance of successful service recovery in the airline sector by examining the interrelationship between perceived justice, recovery satisfaction and overall satisfaction, customer trust and customer loyalty. Furthermore, the research assesses the mediating effect of overall satisfaction and customer trust on customer loyalty.
Data was collected via an airport intercept survey of Malaysia Airlines passengers who had experienced service failure. 380 responses were used for the final analysis. The study uses partial least squares structural equations modelling technique with SmartPLS 3.0, in order to test and validate the research model and hypotheses posited.
The results reveal that: (i) recovery satisfaction is significantly affected by procedural and interactional justice; (ii) distributive and procedural justice, as well as recovery satisfaction is influenced overall satisfaction; (iii) customer trust is most influenced by interactional justice, distributive justice and recovery satisfaction; (iv) customer loyalty is positively affected by customer trust, overall satisfaction and recovery satisfaction; and (v) the influence among recovery satisfaction and customer loyalty is partially mediated by customer trust and overall satisfaction.
Our study contributes to a whole conceptual comprehension of the essential determinants of customer loyalty from the combined perspectives of three theories, namely, justice theory, expectancy disconfirmation theory and commitment trust theory. This study, successfully differentiates the three dimensions of perceived justice and assessed them individually to discern and compare their influence on overall satisfaction, recovery satisfaction and trust. In addition, the study found that the influence of recovery satisfaction on loyalty is partially and sequentially mediated by trust and overall satisfaction.

Mutum, D.; Ghazali, E.; Putit, L. (2019). Information, The Missing Link Between Innovation and Sustainability, The Bottom Line. 32(4), 249-252. [SCOPUS] DOI: 10.1108/BL-08-2019-0109.

Editorial for the special issue of The Bottom Line, titled, "Information, the missing link between innovation and sustainability".

Alwi, S.; Che-Ha, N.; Nguyen, B.; Ghazali, E.; Mutum, D.; Kitchen, P.(Accepted for publication). Projecting University Brand Image via Satisfaction and Behavioral Response: Perspectives from UK-based Malaysian Students, Qualitative Market Research,
This study attempts to ascertain the essential dimensions and components of university corporate brand image, including the cognitive attributes (service/educational quality) and affective attributes (corporate brand image) of the university. It builds on Schmitt’s (1999) conceptualization of brand experience. In doing so, this study develops, explores, and
presents a student-consumer behavioral response model based on students' experiences at a UK university, exploring the relationship between these attributes with satisfaction and behavioral response (word-of-mouth). Findings reveal that both branding aspects - brand experience and corporate brand image - follow a rational thought process before an affective
component is then considered, resulting in brand promise and loyalty. This study identifies several important brand experiences such as social, functional and emotional in higher education that enhance a university corporate brand image and behavioral responses that guide brand positioning of a UK university for the Malaysian market. Based on the findings
of this study, a conceptual framework has been presented. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed with suggestions for future research

26 May 2019

Sales Vs Marketing

Note: This post is motivated by a recent chat I had with a marketing consultant in LinkedIn.

Chatting with marketing professionals, I realise that sales and marketing are often considered separate and distinct areas in the industry with marketing being understood as advertising.

From a theoretical perspective, Sales is considered as part and parcel of Marketing as is Public Relations. 

Here is a post (slightly updated) which I wrote in my old University of Warwick blog in 2009 titled "Selling is not Marketing".

What is the first thing that comes to mind when you hear the word "MARKETING"?

A number of people apparently associate it with either a) selling and b) advertising. What I find surprising is that these include several individuals involved in business and in the corporate sector, including marketing managers.

Selling and advertising is part of marketing but it is NOT marketing.

The concept of marketing has undergone drastic changes over the past three decades, evolving from the production era, namely producing products fast and cheap (Remember "Any customer can have a car painted any colour that he wants so long as it is black.” - Henry Ford). That's one problem with companies which rely too much on engineers or tech people without any input from marketers.

I have heard countless stories where the engineers create a "great" product and then push it to the sales and marketing department, to "sell" it to the customers.

If the product fails, it is apparently due to "bad marketing" (blaming the sales and marketing dept.). In a way it's true but not because of the marketing guys (some of whom don't know what marketing is all about). Rather it was doomed right from the start. The customer didn't need it nor do they want it and any amount of marketing (or selling) won't help.

We then moved through the sales and marketing era - the concept that many companies in the UK are still following now: "If you have a good product, then everyone would buy it. You only have to let the customers know". These companies overly rely on advertising in order to push the products to customers. 

It comes as no surprise that a number of companies in the UK and in Malaysia go under all the time. Many of these companies are still living in the sales era of marketing. So, you will see a number of companies spending thousands (if not millions) of Pounds/ Ringitt Malaysia, to get new customers and then ignore them once they sign up.

I am sure that all of you have at least one personal experience, where you were treated like a King or Queen BEFORE you bought the product and service. And then treated like dirt afterwards.

The old adage that if a customer is happy, he/she tells one person while an unsatisfied customer will tell 10 more people, still holds. The only difference is that people now rant on Twitter, Facebook and on their blogs. It's not just 10 more people anymore but rather thousands via online as well as offline word-of-mouth.

The change in marketing focus from the product to the customer occurred during the marketing era, which appeared around the 1960s in the US. Effectiveness and efficiency in meeting customer demands, needs and wants were identified as the key elements in determining companies' long-term success. Now it has moved beyond market segmentation of customers based on their demographics. Researchers also looked at the attitude or lifestyles of consumers- psychographics. Ever wonder what Tesco does with the information provided by millions of their customers using the loyalty cards?

We have since then moved into the relationship era, which emerged during the 1990s. It shifted the focus to the establishment and maintenance of mutually beneficial relationships with existing customers and suppliers. Now, we are not talking about just making a sale. We want loyal customers who would come back for more and bring along others with them at the same time. We are now talking about long-term relationships.

I wonder how many companies are in this era?

Some companies are still hung up on their proud history, their so-called "heritage" and fail to innovate. More importantly, they forgot to take care of their customers.

A good example: Coventry was once the centre of the British car industry. Now, there's only Jaguar left and that too owned by Tata, an Indian company.

So what's my concept of marketing?

I like the latest definition given by the American Marketing Association (2014) which sums up the concept as I understand it: 

“the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners and society at large”

24 Apr 2019

Top 50 Marketing Profs who Tweet - UPDATED 2019 List

Marketing Profs refer to academics who teach marketing and related subjects in Universities. These are the opinion leaders in the field of Marketing. However, it is quite surprising that several Marketing "Gurus" in academia are not really active on Twitter and are not represented in this list.

There have been some minor changes to this list. It is now restricted to the top 50 and I have removed a few academics who are not strictly in the field of Marketing. Here is the old 2016 list.

I discovered that some have changed their Twitter handles and some have moved Universities.

Mark Schaefer is still on top with 176.2K followers. It is interesting but most seem to have lost followers. Not sure why. Also, there is a huge gap between the 3rd and 4th on the list.

The ranking is based on the number of followers as of 24 April2019.

I am proudly representing Malaysia in the list at #15.

Note: Please let me know if you want to be added to/ removed from the list. 
  1. Mark Schaefer (@markwschaefer) - Rutgers University - 176.2K
  2. Nancy Richmond (@NancyRichmond) - Florida International University - 140.2K 
  3. Anthony Miyazaki (@AnthonyMiyazaki) - Florida International University - 111.4K
  4. Gary R. Schirr (@ProfessorGary) - Radford University - 69.9K
  5. Mark Ritson (@markritson) - Melbourne Business School, University of Melbourne - 37K
  6. Patrick Strother (@PatrickStrother) - University of Minnesota - 30.3K
  7. Jennifer Aaker (@aaker) - Stanford University - 25.6K
  8. Kimberly Whitler (@KimWhitler) - University of Virginia - 19.5K
  9. Bang Nguyen (@ProfBangNguyen) - University of Southern Denmark - 15K
  10. Simon Chadwick (@Prof_Chadwick) - University of Salford  - 15K
  11. Byron Sharp (@ProfByron) - University of South Australia - 14.2K
  12. David Aaker (@DavidAaker) - University of California, Berkeley - 14K
  13. Carol Phillips (@carol_phillips) - University of Notre Dame - 12.4K
  14. Philip Kotler (@kotl) - Northwestern University - 12.2K
  15. Dilip Mutum (@admutum) - University of Nottingham Malaysia  - 9810
  16. Jim Joseph (@JimJosephExp) - New York University - 9433
  17. Lauri Harrison (@lharrison) - Columbia University - 8217
  18. Denny McCorkle (@DennyMcCorkle) - University of Northern Colorado - 8094
  19. Christophe Benavent (@Benavent) - Université Paris Nanterre - 8039
  20. Barbara Kahn (@barbarakahn) - University of Pennsylvania - 7721
  21. John Deighton (@HBSmktg) - Harvard University - 6358
  22. Steven H. Seggie (@Seggitorial) - ESSEC Business School - 5834
  23. D. Steven White (@dstevenwhite) - University of Massachusetts Dartmouth - 5826
  24. T. Bettina Cornwell (@BettinaCornwell) - University of Oregon - 5291
  25. Richard Ladwein (@rladwein) - Université de Lille - 4463
  26. Jaideep Prabhu (@JaideepPrabhu) - Judge Business School, University of Cambridge - 4466
  27. Robert Kozinets (@Kozinets) - Marshall School of Business, University of Southern California - 3907
  28. Miguel Guinalíu (@GUINALIU) - University of Zaragoza - 3648
  29. Eric Vernette (@VernetteE) -  Toulouse University - 3075
  30. Aric Rindfleisch (@aricrindfleisch) - Gies College of Business, The Univ. of Illinois - 2934
  31. Janet Ward (@DrJanet_A_Ward) - University of Sunderland - 2874
  32. Tracy L. Tuten (@brandacity) - Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi - 2794
  33. Zeynep Arsel (@zeyneparsel) the - Concordia University - 2589
  34. Markus Giesler (@DrGiesler) - Schulich School of Business, York University - 2551
  35. Dirk vom Lehn (@dirkvl) -King’s Business School, King’s College London - 2530
  36. Tom van Laer (@tvanlaer) - University of Sydney - 2446
  37. Sue Bridgewater (@SueBridgewater) - UoL ManagementSchool, University of Liverpool - 2048
  38. Marie Taillard (@marietaillard) - ESCP Europe - 1880
  39. Shari Worthington (@sharilee) - Foisie Business School, Worcester Polytechnic Institute - 1866
  40. Finola Kerrigan (@FinolaK) - University of Birmingham - 1860
  41. Alexa Fox (@AlexaKaye3) - Ohio University - 1790
  42. Steve Vargo (@SteveVargo) - The University of Hawai’i at Manoa - 1663
  43. Michelle Weinberger (@consumerlife) - Northwestern University - 1642
  44. Gemma Calvert (@DrGemmaCalvert) - Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University - 1620
  45. Anthony Patterson (@TonyPatterson) - The University of Liverpool - 1580
  46. Spencer M Ross (@srossmktg) - McGill University - 1538
  47. Vincent Balusseau (@vbalusseau) - Audencia Business School - 1401
  48. Tracy Harwood (@tgharwood) -  De Montfort Univ. - 1379
  49. Laurence Dessart (@laurencedessart) - HEC Liège - Management school, University of Liege - 1324
  50. Ekant Veer (@VeerOffTrack) - University of Canterbury - 1254

        15 Apr 2019

        New case study book on Management of Shari’ah Compliant Businesses out

        The edited case study book titled Management of Shari’ah Compliant Businesses: Case Studies on Creation of Sustainable Value, has been published. This is my fourth edited book and the third from Springer.

        I co-edited this book along with Ezlika M. Ghazali, Mamunur Rashid and Jashim U. Ahmed.

        The book has 15 case studies with eight cases under Islamic financial management and seven under Islamic marketing and management.

        "Muslim consumers represent an untapped and viable market segment, but to date there has been very little research on catering to their needs or running and managing Islamic businesses. Innovations in Islamic business, interest in the use of Sukuk (Islamic bonds) to finance major projects, pressures on Islamic banks to reduce the financing gap in society, and the need to understand Muslim consumers, require a deeper grasp of the issues and opportunities involved, which are quite unique. In similar vein, acquiring expertise on topics specific to Shari'ah-compliant businesses requires a thorough knowledge of matters ranging from financing to branding and, in a broader sense, creating an entrepreneurial framework suitable to the market. This book fills this gap by presenting high-quality and original case studies on Islamic finance, marketing and management from around the world. Equally valuable in business school classrooms and for c-suite strategists, it will help readers shape business strategies to tap into a billion-strong market."

        You can now buy the e-book from the Springer site for EUR 53.54.

        30 Jan 2019

        Special issue call for papers from The Bottom Line

        Calling for papers now on "Information, innovation and sustainability: The missing link?"

        This is a special issue call for papers from The Bottom Line. The journal is indexed on Scopus.


        Submissions can be conceptual or empirical (quantitative or qualitative) in nature. The main criterion for publication is that the submission has original value. Possible topics include, but are not limited to:

        • Link between innovation and sustainable consumption.
        • Environmental and sustainable claims in advertising.
        • Role of marketing communications in sustainable marketing.
        • Role of marketing communications in affecting innovation.
        • Emerging trends in sustainable marketing.
        • Challenges facing companies with regards to sustainable marketing.
        • How sustainable plans results innovation?
        • Using information in inspiring people to adopt specific sustainable behaviors.
        • Models of sustainable management

        Some important dates:

        Deadline: 30 January 2019  Now extended to 31st March 2019

        Reviews returned: 1st June 2019
        Revised papers submitted: 1st September 2019
        Final papers due: 1st December 2019
        Expected publication of special issue: Early 2020

        For more information visit the link below:


        First publication of 2019: Understanding New Religion-Compliant Product Adoption (NRCPA) in Islamic Markets

        Just found out that one of my papers, titled "Understanding New Religion-Compliant Product Adoption (NRCPA) in Islamic Markets"  has been published online by the Journal of Global Marketing.

        The authors of the paper were: Ali Homaid Al-hajla, Bang Nguyen, T C Melewar, Chanaka Jayawardhena, Ezlika Ghazali & Dilip S. Mutum .

        This study examines the relationships between religious beliefs, brand personality, and new religion-compliant product adoption (NRCPA) in Islamic markets. Findings confirm that religious consumers tend to behave in accordance with a society or group that follows the same beliefs, and that these consumers’ behavior and lifestyle are influenced by similar religious groups and social relationships. In addition, the more religious the consumer, the more likely they will adopt or favour/disfavour a new product in accordance with his/her religious beliefs. Finally, the three constructs–relative advantages, compatibility and complexity–are found to partially mediate the influential relationship between religious beliefs and new religion-compliant product adoption. International firms that target Muslim markets, with an aim to profit and fit in these markets, must take into account the Islamic values, standards and guidelines.

        Keywords: Religious beliefs, brand personality, new religion-compliant product adoption, Islamic branding, Muslim market

        There are 50 free online copies of their article. Use the link below to view and download the paper:

        1 Jan 2019

        Year end review post

        As the year 2018 draws to a close, I thought I should do a year end review.

        This has been a fantastic year:

        Two consultancies successfully completed.

        Joined the editorial team of International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, as an Associate Editor.

        One book review published:

        Dilip S. Mutum and Bang Nguyen (2018). Book review: The future of Indian universities: comparative and international perspectives, Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 28(1), 153-154.

        One edited book accepted for publication by Springer and coming out early 2019. This would be my 4th edited book:

        Management of Shari’ah Compliant Businesses - Case Studies on Creation of Sustainable Value.

        Six journal papers published:
        1. Ezlika Ghazali, Dilip Mutum and Mei Yuen Woon (2018). Exploring Player Behavior and Motivations to Continue Playing Pokémon GOInformation Technology & People.
        2. Butt, M.M., Yingchen, Y., Mohd-Any, A.A., Mutum, D.S., Ting, H. and Khong, K. W. (2018). Antecedents of consumer-based electronic retail brand equity: an integrated model, Asian Academy of Management Journal, 23(2),  69–99. 
        3. Ezlika M. Ghazali, Dilip S. Mutum and Nanang Ariswibowo (2018). Impact of Religious Values and Habit on an Extended Green Purchase Behaviour Model, International Journal of Consumer Studies, 42 (6), 639-654. 
        4. Ezlika Ghazali, Dilip S. Mutum, Chong Jiu Hui and Bang Nguyen (2018). Do Consumers Want Mobile Commerce? A Closer Look at M-Shopping and Technology Adoption in Malaysia Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics,  30(4), 1064-1086.  
        5. Butt, M.; de-Run, E.; U-Din, A.; Mutum, D., (2018). Religious symbolism in Islamic financial service advertisements, Journal of Islamic Marketing  9(2), 384-401. 
        6. Mutum, D.S., Ghazali, E.M., Mohd-Any, A.A. and Nguyen, B. (2018). Avoidance of sponsored posts on consumer-generated content: a study of personal blogs, The Bottom Line, 31(1), 76-94.
        And finally two journal papers accepted for publication:

        Ezlika Ghazali, Dilip Mutum and Mei Yuen Woon (2019, forthcoming). Multiple Sequential Mediation in an Extended Uses and Gratifications Model of Augmented Reality Game Pokémon Go, Internet Research.

        Al-hajla, A.H., Nguyen, B., Melewar, T.C., Jayawardhena, C., Mutum, D.  and Ghazali, E. (2019, forthcoming). Understanding the adoption of new religion-compliant products (NRCP) in Islamic markets. Journal of Global Marketing.

        Wishing all visitors to my blog a very Happy, Prosperous and Healthy New Year, 2019.

        Marketing and FT 50 Journals list

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