28 Aug 2021

Quantitative vs qualitative methods

A popular question I get from many students related to research methodology is whether quantitative methods are better than qualitative ones. This is an ongoing debate and there seems to be a lot of confusion. Here is my opinion. 

First of all, we must understand that the philosophies behind the two approaches are quite different. It is essential to understand the ontological (i.e. the study of being or existence) and epistemological (i.e. study of the way knowledge is obtained) orientation within one’s personal paradigm. That should be the first step.

Most quantitative research follows a Positivist paradigm, where the data collected is believed to be the true measure of reality or representative of the population and aims to produce findings that are generalisable. This contrasts with interpretivism, which mostly applies to the isolated incidents.

According to the hypothetico-deductive methodology, scientific inquiry proceeds by formulating a hypothesis in a form that could be falsified by a test on observable data. However, if you got the hypothesis wrong in the first place, the results will be wrong as well. In other words, "Rubbish in, rubbish out".

In my own field, Marketing, my observation is that currently, the positivist paradigm seems to dominate with most papers published in the top marketing journals following a quantitative methodology. Taking a closer look, research on more traditional issues in consumer behaviour, such as purchase decision making, persuasion, regret and affect, are positivist. While on the other hand, several modern consumer research often uses interpretivist methods that focus on particular consumption experiences and angles of consumer behaviour - sometimes giving totally new insights which might not be possible using a quantitative approach.

As many studies have indicated, the claims of universalism and generalizability used by Positivists can be criticised. For example, no two people are the same - even twins are different in many ways. It can be argued that rich insights into this complex world are lost if such complexity is reduced to a series of law-like generalisations. Sometimes when we do so, we miss the big picture.

In other words, using a quantitative approach is just one way of looking at a problem and may not always give accurate results. In my personal opinion, qualitative methods are not superior to quantitative approaches and vice versa. They may be actually complementary and it is the reason that mixed methods are increasingly becoming popular. 


Note: This is the slightly modified version of my answer which was first posted on Quora. 

26 Jun 2021

CABS Academic Journal Guide 2021

 The CABS Academic Journal Guide 2021 has just come out.


So what is different? Are there any changes from the AJG 2018?

The answer is "No! Not much". 

All the 4*, 4, 3 and 2 ranked journals are the same, unlike the last revision. The only changes in this new list are some journals that have entered the list as 1 ranked journals.


The new journals are:

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics

International Journal of Technology Marketing

Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising

Journal of Global Fashion Marketing

Journal of Interactive Advertising

Journal of Marketing Analytics and

Recherche et Applications en Marketing


Here is the "New" list:

4* Journals

Journal of Consumer Research

Journal of Marketing

Journal of Marketing Research

Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science

Marketing Science

4 Journals

International Journal of Research in Marketing

Journal of Retailing

3 Journals

Journal of Consumer Research

Journal of Marketing

Journal of Marketing Research

Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science

Marketing Science

International Journal of Research in Marketing

Journal of Retailing

European Journal of Marketing

Industrial Marketing Management

International Marketing Review

Journal of Advertising

Journal of Advertising Research

Journal of Interactive Marketing

Journal of International Marketing

Journal of Public Policy and Marketing

Marketing Letters

Marketing Theory

Psychology and Marketing

Quantitative Marketing and Economics

2 Journals

Academy of Marketing Science Review

Advances in Consumer Research

Consumption Markets and Culture

Electronic Markets

International Journal of Advertising

International Journal of Consumer Studies

International Journal of Market Research

International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management

Journal of Brand Management

Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing

Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing

Journal of Consumer Affairs

Journal of Consumer Behaviour

Journal of Macromarketing

Journal of Marketing Management

Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice

Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management

Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services

Journal of Services Marketing

Journal of Strategic Marketing

Qualitative Market Research

1 Journals

Advances in International Marketing

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics

Australasian Marketing Journal

Corporate Communications

Corporate Reputation Review

Health Marketing Quarterly

International Journal of Bank Marketing

International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising

International Journal of Non-Profit and Voluntary Sector Marketing

International Journal of Technology Marketing

International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research

International Review on Public and Non-Profit Marketing

Journal of Communication Management

Journal of Consumer Marketing

Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management

Journal of Financial Services Marketing

Journal of Global Fashion Marketing

Journal of Global Marketing

Journal of Interactive Advertising

Journal of Marketing Analytics

Journal of Marketing Channels

Journal of Marketing Communications

Journal of Marketing for Higher Education

Journal of Non-Profit and Public Sector Marketing

Journal of Product and Brand Management

Journal of Relationship Marketing

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing

Journal of Social Marketing

Marketing Intelligence and Planning

Recherche et Applications en Marketing

Review of Marketing Science

Services Marketing Quarterly

Social Marketing Quarterly

Young Consumers


Access the whole list here https://charteredabs.org/academic-journal-guide-2021-view/

3 Dec 2020

Social media handbook for academics

I have a new book. Not exactly new as it came out in February this year and I had planned to get it into various bookstores in Malaysia. However, the Covid19 pandemic scuttled all my plans. 

We had hoped that the publisher, Penerbit UMT, would help in distributing the book but they did not. It was not even listed on their website. If you do decide to publish with them, be aware that you would have to handle the distribution and promotion of the book yourself. I will write a post about the whole process and a review of their services soon. 
I co-authored this book with Dr. Ezlika Ghazali and Rahil Mutum. This handbook is based on some articles/tutorials I wrote for the Wolfson Research Exchange website, University of Warwick Library, way back in 2011. The original articles/tutorials were directed specifically at academics and researchers. Those articles and tutorials have now been updated and extended to reflect the various developments and updates in social media since 2011. 

The current handbook discusses the use of social media for research and academic purposes including, how these tools can be used for personal branding by academics. This handbook focuses specifically on the more popular and better-known social media channels, namely Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and Instagram as well as blogs. We hope this work would inspire academics to engage more widely with social media channels. 

We wrote this handbook in such a way that the information provided is short and succinct in an easy to understand simple language. 

It has a total of 7 chapters as follows: 
Chapter 1 : Why Should Academics be on Social Media?
Chapter 2 : Why Should Academics Blog?
Chapter 3 : Facebook for Researchers
Chapter 4 : Using LinkedIn for Networking and Personal Branding
Chapter 5 : Using Twitter for Research and To Boost Your Research Profile
Chapter 6 : Leveraging the Power of Instagram
Chapter 7 : Concluding Thoughts

To buy the book, we prefer Paypal. Transfer the money to dsmutum@hotmail.com 

The prices for different countries are given below: 

Malaysia Pos Laju 

RM20 + RM7 (Postage) 

Zone 1: Brunei, Singapore, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, Vietnam

RM20 + RM20 (Postage) 

Zone 2: 
Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Christmas Island, Cocos Island, Fiji, Hong Kong, India, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Macao, Maldives, Nepal, New Zealand, Cook Islands, Niue Islands, Tokelau Islands, Norfolk Islands, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Timor Leste, Taiwan

RM20 + RM25 (Postage) 

Other countries 

RM20 + RM30 (Postage)

26 Oct 2020

Should academic researchers market their papers to create a wider reach?

 This is an updated version of a post I wrote on Quora way back in January 2018.

My answer is always "Yes!"

When I say ‘market’, I would like to point out that I am referring to the academic definition and not the commonly held perception of marketing as "selling". 

According to the American Marketing Association (AMA, 2012):

"Marketing is the activity, set of institutions and processes for creating, communicating, delivering and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners and society at large."

According to a study in 2007, half of the academic papers are only read by their authors, referees and journal editors. I guess Academics like me have ourselves to blame. We have tended to focus too much on theoretical contributions and also limit the discussions mostly to the academic community. However, changes in the way our Key Performance Indices (KPIs) are measured have resulted in the way we view research. Most educational institutions of higher learning which have a research focus, now require you to show the “impact” of the research. This impact includes evidence on how the results were circulated on mass media, the implementation by industry or target audiences, etc.

The problem is that many academic are not media savvy and do not really know how to market their research. Moreover, they tend to move on to the next project once they end the previous one. Happy that they have a conference proceeding or two and a journal paper from the research and they move on to the next one. Again this is due to pressure from institutions to churn out research papers regularly to meet KPIs, University rankings and quality certifications.

Coming back to the definition, we can market our research by looking at how we can create value from our research. We also need to be media savvy and should reach out to the general public. Many of us are now active on social media and sharing our research and knowledge with everyone who cares to listen and we are also finding out what people think about our research. Engaging and collaborating with organisations (including NGOs, Governments and Corporates) allows us to fine-tune our research to meet and satisfy specific needs and requirements.

Hopefully, this will increase the reach of our research.

14 Sept 2020

How do some academics publish several papers annually

1.Working Hard:

Yes, you do have to work hard. We are constantly reading, reviewing, discussing and thinking of research ideas. And you keep on writing and writing and submitting. Last year, I submitted more than 20 papers to various journals. Many were desk rejected by the editors, others were rejected by the reviewers, a few went through to the next review rounds. Now this year, I am seeing the fruits of my hard work as I have had several papers published and others accepted for publication.

2. Working Smart

However, besides working hard, you have to work smart as well. I soon realised that a lot of papers by the top professors are with their students, also a number are in association with other academics. You simply cannot do it alone and highlights the importance of having good students researching under you and networking. 

The idea of the lonely professor working alone in his room does not work anymore. Looking the prolific professors, it is clear that they do not do it alone - it is in collaboration with many other authors and of course, with their students. I know of one PhD student who already has 3 publications even before graduation and all papers are with the supervisors.

3. Reading and Reviewing

I also joined the editorial teams of a few journals and am reviewer to several top ranking journals. Reading and reviewing papers of other academics have actually helped me to improve my own submissions and I can see that my success rates are improving over time.

The dark side of academia

Of course there are several criticisms - that we have become paper churning machines, that we are neglecting teaching and learning, and long-term research are often rejected for less impact short-term research. There are increasingly a number of reports indicating that so many academics are suffering from stress and depression because of the requirement to constantly publish papers and not just any paper, but papers in “high ranking journals”. 

Tenureships, increments, promotions all depend on the number of good publications. In fact, in academia, it is our currency. All academics are aware of the phrase “Publish or Perish”. Unfortunately for academics, it is still the major KPI used for evaluating performance, hirings and for promotions in most Universities throughout the World.

Then there is the dark side of academia. We regularly hear of how certain professors have been suspended or fired from their jobs for ethical issues including plagiarism and fudged research findings. Sometimes they go unpunished because it would involve bringing the institution into disrepute. 

Read my original Quora answer here.

3 Jul 2020

Australian Business Deans Council (ABDC) 2019 Marketing Journals List

This is a long overdue post. The latest ABDC list was released on 6 December 2019. Marketing journals are listed under Field of research code: 1505.

There are some interesting and exciting developments and a lot of upward movement. I would say that the ABDC list has proven to more inclusive and more advanced as compared to the CABS (UK) list of marketing journals

Journal of Consumer Psychology has been promoted to A* and now there are 11 A* journals as compared to 10 in the previous list. 

There are now 38 A journals in the list, an increase from 29 in the previous list.

In the B list, there are now 60 journals as compared to 44 previously.

However, the number of C journals has become smaller, from 61 previously to just 45 in the new list. 

There are a few completely new entries to the list:
Tobacco Control entered directly as a B journal. 
There are also 6 new entries into the list as C journals:
  1. Indian Journal of Marketing 
  2. International Journal of Healthcare Management
  3. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing
  4. Journal of Marketing Analytics
  5. Journal of Public Relations Education
  6. Communication Research and Practice
The new changes are indicated by '*' behind the journal name. 

A* Journals
  1. European Journal of Marketing
  2. Industrial Marketing Management
  3. International Journal of Research in Marketing
  4. Journal of Consumer Psychology*
  5. Journal of Consumer Research
  6. Journal of Marketing
  7. Journal of Marketing Research
  8. Journal of Retailing
  9. Journal of Service Research
  10. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
  11. Marketing Science
A Journals
  1. Appetite
  2. Australasian Marketing Journal *
  3. Food Quality and Preference
  4. Health Promotion International
  5. International Journal of Advertising*
  6. International Journal of Bank Marketing*
  7. International Journal of Consumer Studies
  8. International Journal of Market Research*
  9. International Journal of Public Opinion Research*
  10. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management*
  11. International Marketing Review
  12. Journal of Advertising
  13. Journal of Advertising Research
  14. Journal of Brand Management
  15. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing
  16. Journal of Business Research
  17. Journal of Consumer Affairs
  18. Journal of Consumer Behaviour*
  19. Journal of Consumer Marketing*
  20. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management
  21. Journal of Interactive Marketing
  22. Journal of International Marketing
  23. Journal of Macromarketing
  24. Journal of Marketing Management
  25. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management*
  26. Journal of Product & Brand Management*
  27. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing
  28. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services
  29. Journal of Service Theory and Practice
  30. Journal of Services Marketing
  31. Journal of Strategic Marketing
  32. Marketing Intelligence & Planning
  33. Marketing Letters
  34. Marketing Theory
  35. Psychology & Marketing
  36. Public Relations Review
  37. Quantitative Marketing and Economics
  38. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics*
B Journals
  1. Academy of Marketing Studies Journal
  2. Advances in Consumer Research
  3. AMS Review*
  4. Asia Pacific Public Relations Journal
  5. Consumption, Markets and Culture
  6. Corporate Communications 
  7. Customer Needs and Solutions
  8. Health Marketing Quarterly
  9. International Journal of Emerging Markets*
  10. International Journal of Enterprise Network Management
  11. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing
  12. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences*
  13. International Journal of Sports Management and Marketing
  14. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
  15. International Journal of Strategic Communication*
  16. International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research
  17. International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing*
  18. Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing
  19. Journal of Communication Management
  20. Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior
  21. Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising*
  22. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management
  23. Journal of Financial Services Marketing
  24. Journal of Food Products Marketing*
  25. Journal of Global Fashion Marketing*
  26. Journal of Global Marketing*
  27. Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science*
  28. Journal of Historical Research in Marketing*
  29. Journal of Interactive Advertising
  30. Journal of International Consumer Marketing*
  31. Journal of International Food and Agribusiness Marketing*
  32. Journal of Islamic Marketing*
  33. Journal of Marketing Behaviour
  34. Journal of Marketing Channels*
  35. Journal of Marketing Communications
  36. Journal of Marketing Education
  37. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education*
  38. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice
  39. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing
  40. Journal of Political Marketing*
  41. Journal of Promotion Management
  42. Journal of Public Affairs
  43. Journal of Public Relations Research
  44. Journal of Relationship Marketing*
  45. Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing*
  46. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship*
  47. Journal of Revenue & Pricing Management
  48. Journal of Social Marketing
  49. Journal of the Association for Consumer Research *
  50. PRism
  51. Public Relations Inquiry*
  52. Qualitative Market Research: an international journal
  53. Service Business *
  54. Service Industries Journal
  55. Services Marketing Quarterly
  56. Social Marketing Quarterly*
  57. Sport Marketing Quarterly
  58. Young Consumers
  59. British Food Journal*
  60. Tobacco Control* (New entry)
C Journals
  1. Advances in International Marketing
  2. Advertising & Society Review
  3. Arts and the Market (formerly Arts Marketing)
  4. Asian Journal of Business Research
  5. Asian Journal of Marketing (SING)
  6. Canadian Journal of Marketing Research
  7. Indian Journal of Marketing * (New Entry)
  8. International Journal of Electronic Customer Relationship Management
  9. International Journal of Electronic Marketing and Retailing
  10. International Journal of Healthcare Management* (New Entry)
  11. International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising
  12. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing* (New Entry)
  13. International Journal of Sustainable Design
  14. International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development
  15. International Journal of Technology Marketing
  16. International Journal of Trade and Global Markets
  17. Irish Marketing Review
  18. Journal for Advancement of Marketing Education (JAME)
  19. Journal of Advertising Education
  20. Journal of Customer Behavior
  21. Journal of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management
  22. Journal of Digital & Social Media Marketing
  23. Journal of Empirical Generalisations in Marketing Science
  24. Journal of Euromarketing
  25. Journal of Food Distribution Research
  26. Journal of Hospitality Application and Research
  27. Journal of International Marketing and Exporting
  28. Journal of International Marketing and Marketing Research
  29. Journal of Marketing & Social Research 
  30. Journal of Marketing Analytics* (New Entry)
  31. Journal of Medical Marketing
  32. Journal of Public Relations Education* (New Entry)
  33. Journal of Research for Consumers
  34. Journal of Selling
  35. Journal of Services Research
  36. Journal of Sponsorship
  37. Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing
  38. Marketing Bulletin
  39. Marketing Education Review
  40. Marketing Health Services
  41. Research in Consumer Behavior: a research annual
  42. Review of Marketing Science
  43. Revista Portuguesa de Marketing
  44. The Marketing Review
  45. Communication Research and Practice* (New Entry)

18 Jun 2020

Free business case studies online

This is an update on an answer I wrote on Quora in 2016. As a lecturer in a business school, I often use business case studies in my classes. They are really useful to help students to apply the theories and concepts which they have learnt in class to actual business case studies. 

I always emphasise that there is no wrong or right answer but rather a bad or good answer and often this is based on their justification and analysis of the information provided in the case studies. So far, I have edited three case study books, namely: 
  1.  Management of Shari’ah Compliant Businesses: Case Studies on Creation of Sustainable Value (2019). Ghazali, E., Mutum, D.S., Rashid, M., Ahmed, J.U. (Eds), Springer. 
  2. Services Marketing Cases in Emerging Markets: An Asian Perspective (2017, Ebook came out in 2016), Roy, S.; Mutum, D. and Nguyen, B. (Eds), Springer. 
  3.  Marketing Cases from Emerging Markets (2014). Mutum, D., Roy, S. and Kipnis, E. (Eds), Springer. 

There are also several free sources on the net but the quality of cases vary greatly. 

For MBA case studies, here are two great sources: 

New cases are added regularly. Though I mostly use marketing related case studies, they have several interdisciplinary cases. 

Cases classified under entrepreneurship, leadership/ethics, operations management, strategy, sustainability, and system dynamics. Do you know of any other free sources of case studies?

1 Dec 2019

FASS Research Excellence Award 2019



Was delighted to be recognised by the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Nottingham Malaysia for my research contributions for the year 2018. You might be wondering "Why 2018"? Well, it is like the impact factor for journals, we were judged based on our performance in 2018.

I didn't really expect to win but while going through the work I had done last year, I was actually quite surprised I had actually achieved a lot.

This included the completion of a Government-funded project; successful completion of 2 consultancy projects; delivery of 2 guest lectures in 2 public Universities in Malaysia; successful supervision of 8 Masters students; publication of 7 journal papers, an external examiner for 2 PhD theses, reviewed 9 journals and conference proceedings and received an Outstanding contribution in Reviewing award from the journal, Technological forcasting and social change.

1 Oct 2019

My recent publications 2019

Here is the list of my recent publications this year. Let me know if you want soft copies of the paper. I am very happy and thankful that I have already exceeded my KPI requirements for the next 5 years. Whatever publications I have after this is just the icing on the cake.

Ghazali, E.; Mutum, D. and Woon, M. Y. (2019). Multiple Sequential Mediation in an Extended Uses and Gratifications Model of Augmented Reality Game Pokémon Go, Internet Research. 29(3), 504-528.
Abstract:
Purpose
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mechanism by which uses and gratification (U&G) constructs predict continuance intention to play (ContInt) the augmented reality game Pokémon Go (PG), through multiple serial mediation technique, with enjoyment and flow as mediators. The model also integrates other motivational factors specific to PG, namely, network externality and nostalgia and investigates the process by which they influence ContInt through players’ inherent need-to-collect animated monsters and online community involvement, respectively.
Design/methodology/approach
The model was tested using 362 validated responses from an online survey of PG players in Malaysia. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was used to analyse the data. The predictive relevance of the model was tested via partial least squares-Predict.
Findings
ContInt is influenced through various mechanisms. Enjoyment is the most important mediator, mediating three U&G predictor constructs (achievement, escapism, challenge and social interaction) and the outcome ContInt. Flow did not have any influence on ContInt unless coupled with enjoyment as a serial mediator. Network externality and nostalgia were found to only influence ContInt through mediators, online community involvement and need-to-collect Pokémon Monsters, respectively. Overall, the results show evidence of four indirect-only mediation paths and one complementary partial mediation path.
Originality/value
Provides support for an integrated model incorporating psychological, social and gaming motivational factors. While most other studies focus on direct relationships, we focus on indirect relationships through multiple sequential mediation analysis, following the recent modern mediation analysis guidelines. Contrary to previous findings, flow was not an important factor in predicting ContInt for gaming and nostalgia does not link directly to ContInt.

Al-hajla, A.H., Nguyen, B., Melewar, T.C., Jayawardhena, C., Mutum, D.  and Ghazali, E. (2019). Understanding the adoption of new religion-compliant products (NRCP) in Islamic markets. Journal of Global Marketing 32(4), 288-302. (AJG 1/ ABDC B/ SCOPUS)
Abstract:
This study examines the relationships between religious beliefs, brand personality, and new religion-compliant product adoption (NRCPA) in Islamic markets. Findings confirm that religious consumers tend to behave in accordance with a society or group that follows the same beliefs, and that these consumers’ behavior and lifestyle are influenced by similar religious groups and social relationships. In addition, the more religious the consumer, the more likely they will adopt or favour/disfavour a new product in accordance with his/her religious beliefs. Finally, the three constructs–relative advantages, compatibility and complexity–are found to partially mediate the influential relationship between religious beliefs and new religion-compliant product adoption. International firms that target Muslim markets, with an aim to profit and fit in these markets, must take into account the Islamic values, standards and guidelines.

Ghazali, E.M., Nguyen, B., Mutum, D.S. and Yap, S.-F. (2019). Pro-Environmental Behaviours and Value-Belief-Norm Theory: Assessing Unobserved Heterogeneity of Two Ethnic Groups. Sustainability 2019, 11, 3237.  (SCOPUS /ISI).
Abstract:
Previous environmental sustainability studies have examined only limited type of pro-environmental behaviour (PEB; e.g., recycling), but have not explored relationships among various types or dimensions of PEBs. This paper explores six types of PEBs (i.e., activist, avoider, green consumer, green passenger, recycler and utility saver) and investigates their antecedents and interrelationships between two ethnic groups—Malays and Chinese in Malaysia. Survey data from 581 respondents, comprising 307 Malays and 274 Chinese, were used to assess the research model. To conduct multi-group analysis, the study used partial least squares structural equation modelling in SmartPLS 3. The study extends the Value-Belief-Norm (VBN) theory by using social norms to predict PEBs. The results suggest that social norms predict each type of PEB, in contrast to other constructs in VBN theory, except for utility-saving behaviours. The findings also reveal some similarities as well as differences between Malays and Chinese, indicating that the two ethnic groups are not homogeneous. The study is the first to simultaneously study six types of PEB and to examine the differences between Malays and Chinese on PEB constructs and offers a valuable contribution to the literature by extending VBN theory to social norms and PEB.

Ghazali, E.M.; Ngiam, E. Y-L. and Mutum, D.S. (Accepted for publication). Elucidating the drivers of residential mobility and housing choice behaviour in a suburban township via push–pull–mooring framework, Journal of Housing and the Built Environment. DOI: 10.1007/s10901-019-09705-8
Abstract
This study applies the “push-pull-mooring” model of migration to explain home purchase intention in a suburban township. “Push” effects include dissatisfaction and high housing costs in one’s current neighbourhood (“the origin”). “Pull” effects were consumers’ per-ceived value of the suburban township (“the destination”), which encompassed price, func-tional, emotional, social, symbolic, and Feng Shui aspects. Relocation costs and alternative township’s attractiveness were hypothesized as “mooring” effects that negatively impact purchase intention as well as moderate the push and pull effects. 179 valid responses from prospective home buyers were analysed using partial least squares structural equation mod-elling (PLS-SEM). Pull effects were found to exert a positive influence while mooring and push effects exert a negative influence on purchase intention. Moderation effects of the mooring factors were found to be not significant in this context. This study offers sev-eral interesting implications for researchers and marketing practitioners in the real estate industry

Mohd-Any, A. A.; Mutum, D.; Ghazali, E. M and Mohamed-Zulkifli, L. (2019). To fly or not to fly? An empirical study of trust, post-recovery satisfaction and loyalty of Malaysia Airlines passengers, Journal of Service Theory and Practice. DOI: 10.1108/JSTP-10-2018-0223
Abstract
Purpose
This research investigates the importance of successful service recovery in the airline sector by examining the interrelationship between perceived justice, recovery satisfaction and overall satisfaction, customer trust and customer loyalty. Furthermore, the research assesses the mediating effect of overall satisfaction and customer trust on customer loyalty.
Design/methodology/approach
Data was collected via an airport intercept survey of Malaysia Airlines passengers who had experienced service failure. 380 responses were used for the final analysis. The study uses partial least squares structural equations modelling technique with SmartPLS 3.0, in order to test and validate the research model and hypotheses posited.
Findings
The results reveal that: (i) recovery satisfaction is significantly affected by procedural and interactional justice; (ii) distributive and procedural justice, as well as recovery satisfaction is influenced overall satisfaction; (iii) customer trust is most influenced by interactional justice, distributive justice and recovery satisfaction; (iv) customer loyalty is positively affected by customer trust, overall satisfaction and recovery satisfaction; and (v) the influence among recovery satisfaction and customer loyalty is partially mediated by customer trust and overall satisfaction.
Originality/value
Our study contributes to a whole conceptual comprehension of the essential determinants of customer loyalty from the combined perspectives of three theories, namely, justice theory, expectancy disconfirmation theory and commitment trust theory. This study, successfully differentiates the three dimensions of perceived justice and assessed them individually to discern and compare their influence on overall satisfaction, recovery satisfaction and trust. In addition, the study found that the influence of recovery satisfaction on loyalty is partially and sequentially mediated by trust and overall satisfaction.

Mutum, D.; Ghazali, E.; Putit, L. (2019). Information, The Missing Link Between Innovation and Sustainability, The Bottom Line. 32(4), 249-252. [SCOPUS] DOI: 10.1108/BL-08-2019-0109.

Editorial for the special issue of The Bottom Line, titled, "Information, the missing link between innovation and sustainability".


Alwi, S.; Che-Ha, N.; Nguyen, B.; Ghazali, E.; Mutum, D.; Kitchen, P.(Accepted for publication). Projecting University Brand Image via Satisfaction and Behavioral Response: Perspectives from UK-based Malaysian Students, Qualitative Market Research,
Abstract:
This study attempts to ascertain the essential dimensions and components of university corporate brand image, including the cognitive attributes (service/educational quality) and affective attributes (corporate brand image) of the university. It builds on Schmitt’s (1999) conceptualization of brand experience. In doing so, this study develops, explores, and
presents a student-consumer behavioral response model based on students' experiences at a UK university, exploring the relationship between these attributes with satisfaction and behavioral response (word-of-mouth). Findings reveal that both branding aspects - brand experience and corporate brand image - follow a rational thought process before an affective
component is then considered, resulting in brand promise and loyalty. This study identifies several important brand experiences such as social, functional and emotional in higher education that enhance a university corporate brand image and behavioral responses that guide brand positioning of a UK university for the Malaysian market. Based on the findings
of this study, a conceptual framework has been presented. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed with suggestions for future research


26 May 2019

Sales Vs Marketing

Note: This post is motivated by a recent chat I had with a marketing consultant in LinkedIn.

Chatting with marketing professionals, I realise that sales and marketing are often considered separate and distinct areas in the industry with marketing being understood as advertising.

From a theoretical perspective, Sales is considered as part and parcel of Marketing as is Public Relations. 

Here is a post (slightly updated) which I wrote in my old University of Warwick blog in 2009 titled "Selling is not Marketing".

What is the first thing that comes to mind when you hear the word "MARKETING"?

A number of people apparently associate it with either a) selling and b) advertising. What I find surprising is that these include several individuals involved in business and in the corporate sector, including marketing managers.

Selling and advertising is part of marketing but it is NOT marketing.

The concept of marketing has undergone drastic changes over the past three decades, evolving from the production era, namely producing products fast and cheap (Remember "Any customer can have a car painted any colour that he wants so long as it is black.” - Henry Ford). That's one problem with companies which rely too much on engineers or tech people without any input from marketers.

I have heard countless stories where the engineers create a "great" product and then push it to the sales and marketing department, to "sell" it to the customers.

If the product fails, it is apparently due to "bad marketing" (blaming the sales and marketing dept.). In a way it's true but not because of the marketing guys (some of whom don't know what marketing is all about). Rather it was doomed right from the start. The customer didn't need it nor do they want it and any amount of marketing (or selling) won't help.

We then moved through the sales and marketing era - the concept that many companies in the UK are still following now: "If you have a good product, then everyone would buy it. You only have to let the customers know". These companies overly rely on advertising in order to push the products to customers. 

It comes as no surprise that a number of companies in the UK and in Malaysia go under all the time. Many of these companies are still living in the sales era of marketing. So, you will see a number of companies spending thousands (if not millions) of Pounds/ Ringitt Malaysia, to get new customers and then ignore them once they sign up.

I am sure that all of you have at least one personal experience, where you were treated like a King or Queen BEFORE you bought the product and service. And then treated like dirt afterwards.

The old adage that if a customer is happy, he/she tells one person while an unsatisfied customer will tell 10 more people, still holds. The only difference is that people now rant on Twitter, Facebook and on their blogs. It's not just 10 more people anymore but rather thousands via online as well as offline word-of-mouth.

The change in marketing focus from the product to the customer occurred during the marketing era, which appeared around the 1960s in the US. Effectiveness and efficiency in meeting customer demands, needs and wants were identified as the key elements in determining companies' long-term success. Now it has moved beyond market segmentation of customers based on their demographics. Researchers also looked at the attitude or lifestyles of consumers- psychographics. Ever wonder what Tesco does with the information provided by millions of their customers using the loyalty cards?

We have since then moved into the relationship era, which emerged during the 1990s. It shifted the focus to the establishment and maintenance of mutually beneficial relationships with existing customers and suppliers. Now, we are not talking about just making a sale. We want loyal customers who would come back for more and bring along others with them at the same time. We are now talking about long-term relationships.

I wonder how many companies are in this era?

Some companies are still hung up on their proud history, their so-called "heritage" and fail to innovate. More importantly, they forgot to take care of their customers.

A good example: Coventry was once the centre of the British car industry. Now, there's only Jaguar left and that too owned by Tata, an Indian company.

So what's my concept of marketing?

I like the latest definition given by the American Marketing Association (2014) which sums up the concept as I understand it: 

“the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners and society at large”

Quantitative vs qualitative methods

A popular question I get from many students related to research methodology is whether quantitative methods are better than qualitative ones...